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Third year Course Content


MATH 351 Statistics

Introduction to probability; Random variables and functions of random variables; Mathematical expectations and moments; special discrete and continuous distribution: binomial, exponential, gamma, chi-square, t- and F- sums of random variables, Law of large numbers; Central limit theorem.

CE 367 Transportation Engineering

Elements of traffic flow: Traffic flow variables, flow-density relationship, shock waves in traffic flow, queuing models and their application to tolling of roads, level of service of basic roadway sections; Traffic engineering studies: Spot speeds, volume studies, travel time and delay studies, parking studies, accident studies; Traffic control and management systems: Traffic conflicts at intersections, types of intersection control, traffic signs and pavement markings, elements of intersection signalisation, capacity and level of service analysis of signalised intersections; Highway capacity analysis: Capacity of basic, freeway sections, capacity of multi-lane highways.

GE 351 Photogrammetry II 

Stereo Photogrammetry; interior, relative and absolute orientations; stereoscopic plotting instruments and their uses: approximate solution, Rigorous solution. The analogous, Analytical and digital and their uses; testing and adjustments of stereo plotters; Aerial Triangulation methods including use of  clinometers, Zeiss parallelogram, independent models, Bundles and strip formation and adjustment with polynomials; Comparators and photo-coordinate measurements ; Coordinate transformation; Analytical orientations; the co linearity equations for space resection/space intersection, the coplanarity condition; Introduction to digital photogrammetry systems; Data compilation with analytical and digital systems; Introduction to non-Topographic Photogrammetry.    

GE 353 Geodetic Surveying I 

Operations in geodesy; spherical excess and legendre’s formula; shape of the earth - ellipsoid geoid, vertical deflection, selection of spheroid; co-ordinate systems - Cartesian and curvilinear, global and local, change of co-ordinate systems, Bowring’s method; computations on the spheroid, distance along a meridian, distance along a parallel; Map projections – distortion, conformal mapping, Gausian fundamental quantities, isometric co-ordinates, transverse Mercator, UTM, transverse Mercator in Ghana, line scale factor, and (t-T) correction.

GE 361 Remote Sensing II 

Pattern recognition and data interpretation; geometric transformations; image processing - geometric and radiometric corrections, image enhancements; data analysis, image processing.

GE 371 Survey Adjustment I 

Purpose of adjustment; theory or errors – nature and types of errors, concepts and definitions, Mathematical models-fundamental model and linearization, observation equations, condition equations, principles of least squares. Solution of observation and condition equations, normal equations by least squares.

Adjustment of networks-levelling, traverses, triangulation, trilateration and GPS; Application of least squares to co-ordinate transformations.


PL 252 Planning the Physical Environment

Town and Country Planning laws; nature and objectives of physical planning; land use planning and policies in urban and rural areas; development plans - structure and implementation; neighbourhood development; aesthetic aspects of Town and Country Planning.

CE 368 Highway Engineering

Highway functional classification; Highway location surveys; Geometric design of highways: Cross-sectional elements, factors affecting design, horizontal alignment design, vertical alignment design, computer application in geometric design; Intersection design and control:  Types of at-grade intersections, design principles, general concepts for traffic control, basic principles of for grade-separated intersections; Pavement design: Pavement types and structure, stresses and strains in pavements, structural design of pavements, pavement materials; Pavement maintenance and management: Problems of highway maintenance, defects in pavements and their causes, road maintenance activities, methods for measuring road condition, pavement management systems.

GE 354 Satellite Surveying (2, 3, 3)

Objective: To introduce students to a basic understanding of the theory and applications of modern satellite geodesy.


Space-based positioning systems (such as GPS and GLONASS) used in conjunction with sophisticated mathematical modelling to solve the problems of determining 3-D position on and near the surface of the earth. An overview of the theory and applications of satellite surveying- artificial satellites, satellite orbital motion, Kepler elements.  GPS system concepts and characteristics – space segment, operational control segment, user segment, signal structure, receivers and antennae; GPS measurements – pseudoranging, carrier phase measurements, GPS time, error sources and measurement accuracy, mission planning; position determination techniques - single point and differential positioning, static and kinematic GPS, post mission and Real time processing, DGPS concepts; using GPS for height determination; reference datums and datum transformation, Integrating satellite data into local co-ordinate systems; GPS application; introduction to other space  geodesy techniques - satellite altimetry ,  satellite laser ranging. Geodetic datum definition and coordinate systems. Principles and theory of satellite positioning, error modelling, practical  applications and considerations, data processing strategies, heights from GPS and geoid  modelling and the future of satellite geodesy. The use of GPS data for orbital analysis, design and analysis of geodetic networks. 

GE 372 Survey Adjustment II 

Importance of quality control in surveying; general statistical treatment- random errors; stochastic model; probability distributions; Propagation of errors; covariance matrices, variances; mathematical expectation and unbiased estimators; error ellipses, weights and standard errors.

Statistical testing; terminology and definition; normal distribution, confidence intervals; identification of outliers or blunder detection, hypothesis testing; kalma filtering. 

GE 362 Principles of GIS 

Definitions and concepts of Land and Geographic Information Systems;  data - sources and acquisition; methods of data input into GIS, (direct entry, digitization, scanning, and scanned digitizing, automatic data recognition and data integration from image sources),  data structures and data models in GIS (spatial data models and thematic data structures);the concepts of map projections and geo-coding methods. Data management and display. Vector-based GIS (definition, elements, data bases, specific related problems and analysis); raster-based GIS (definition, data entry, specific related problems and analysis); introduction into ArcView, ArcGIS, Ilwis, Idrisi etc.

GE 392 Survey Camp/Practical Task III 

Control surveys - Triangulation, trilateration and EDM traverses; GPS surveys; design of terrestrial control network for photogrammetric mapping; preparation of base maps and road surveys.