# Second Year Course Content

### SEMESTER ONE

MATH 251 Mathematics III

Analysis III: (Pre-requisites: - Algebra I and II, Analysis II) Differentiation under the integral sign; Multiple integrals - line; surface; volume integrals; Triple scalar and vector products; differentiation of vectors; Vector fields; Differential equations: (Pre-requisites: - Analysis II) Ordinary Differential equations; first order differential equations, second order linear differential equations; Systems of linear equations with constant coefficients; Laplace transforms.

GE 251 Photogrammetry I

Photogrammetry in Survey/Mapping and other applications of photogrammetry. Types of Aerial survey cameras:Normalangle, Wide angle, Super wide angle, Panoramic; types of aerial survey photographs and their geometry: Vertical, Low Oblique, High Oblique, Panoramic. Binocular vision and stereoscopy, principles and use of the parallax equations and the parallax bar; Measurements on aerial photographs - vertical, tilted. The radial line assumption and its applications; Graphical and instrumental rectification, Orthophotography; Rectified photographs and orthophotographs; Relative merits, limitations and their use in Mosaic Construction. Provision of ground controls for photogrammetric surveys; Flight planning; Characteristics of photogrammetric film and emulsion; Image development; Latent imagery, the negative nad positives.

GE 261 Field and Geodetic Astronomy

Introduction to field and geodetic astronomy – purpose and scope, motion of stars and sun, the solar system; spherical trigonometry - the celestial sphere and various co-ordinate systems used on it; time scales, universal, sidereal, local; star places, the use of star almanac, star catalogues and reduction; observation and computation of azimuth; determination of latitude and longitude including position line; polar motion; introduction to digital astronomy.

GE 271 Engineering Surveying I

Coordinate systems for engineering works: Setting out of engineering works- controlling verticality; setting out invent levels. Mensuration- areas of irregular objects trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s rule, area from coordinates, use of planimeter.  Longitudinal sections and cross sections- formation level, calculation of cross-sectional areas- Volumes- the end areas method, the prismoidal method, volumes of large earthworks:- from spot heights, rectangular base method,  triangular base method. Balance of cut and fill, volumes from contours. Mass haul diagrams cumulative volumes bulking and shrinkage factor correction.

Road surveying:-horizontal and vertical curves types of horizontal curves:-simple curves, compound curves, reverse curves, spiral curves.  Elements of a horizontal curves, length of curve  , tangent distance, long chord (lc), external distance (e), middle ordinate (m), degree of curve (d) and its definitions using arc or chord. Stationing, solution of a simple curve, location of tangent points on the field and setting out of simple circular curves. Compound curves, reverse curves, transition curves, and super elevation. Elements of curve design. Vertical curves, uses, equation for vertical curves, selection of grades for design, K-values, and its relation to length of curve and grade, elements of vertical curves, setting out of vertical curves

GE 281 Marine And Geodetic Science

Earth gravity field - gravitational, centrifugal and gravity force and potential, equipotential surfaces, curvature of the plumb line, natural co-ordinates; height systems - geopotential numbers, dynamic, normal and orthometric heights; earth and ocean tides; mean sea level and the definition of the geoid; basic principles and methods of geoid determination; height datums; marine geoids - sea surface topography (SST) and sea surface heights (SSH)

GE 263 Information Science and Programming

Description: This subject provides an introduction to problem solving in Geomatics using scientific programming, spreadsheets and CAD systems. The focus will include:

Algorithmic problem solving: The structure and syntax of the procedural programming language Microsoft Visual Basic; The design and development of computer software packages; Computational methods in Geomatics using Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and Using Microsoft Visual Basic within the Microsoft Excel environment.

CAD software with particular emphasis on Geomatics applications: Fundamentals of CAD for surveying applications. 2-D operations. Basic design and drawing; Development and use of cells and templates. Calculations with CAD packages; Required standards for surveying drawings, plats, maps, plans, etc.; 3-D applications of CAD for surveyors; 3-D terrain representation, building representation, facilities and assets representations. Analysis potential with 3-D data; linking textual data to spatial data through the CAD package.

ENGL 263 LITERATURE IN ENGLISH

### SEMESTER TWO

MATH 252 Mathematics IV

Analysis IV: (Pre-requisites: - Algebra I and II, Analysis II) Differentiation of implicit functions; extrema, gamma and beta functions; functions of complex variables; conformal mapping; contour integration; Differential equations II: (Pre-requisites: - Differential Equations I) Solutions in series; Fourier series; Classification of second order partial differential equations and reduction to canonical forms; solutions of simple boundary problems by separation of variables.

CE 260 Soil And Rock Mechanics

Introduction: Soils in civil engineering, syllabus for CE 260, evaluation procedure; Formation of soils: Weathering - physical and chemical weathering; sedimentary and residual soils; Index Properties: Particle size distribution; sieve analysis, sedimentation, Stoke's Law, hydrometer method; Atterberg Limits: Determination of liquid, plastic and shrinkage limits, definition of activity of a clay; Soil Classification Systems: soil classification; the need for soil classification, Cassagrande's extended system, the Unified Soil Classified System, the AASHITO system; Phase Relations: Definitions - water content, void ratio, dry density, degree of saturation, and calculations; Soil Compaction: Moisture density relationships, properties of compacted soils; Laboratory compaction; Various specifications (AASHITO, Mod. AASHITO, Proctor, Mod. Proctor,…) Compaction Specification: types of specifications, compaction equipment, compaction control testing; Mohr Circle of Stress: Principal stresses, Mohr's circle of stress, calculation of magnitude and direction, Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion; Shear Strength: Measurement of strength - triaxial test, the unconfined compression test, the direct shear test; Effective stress: The concept of effective stress, calculation of effective stresses, geostatic stresses; Stress Analysis in Rocks: Mechanical properties of rocks, uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, shear strength (unconfined & triaxial); Rock Mass: stress strain relations; rock mass properties, joint analysis and classification, effects of joints.

GE 262 Remote Sensing I

Characteristics of remote sensing systems; electromagnetic spectrum; image characteristics - reflectance, absorption and radiation; spectral data and image forming systems; instrumentation; data acquisition.

GE 272 Engineering Surveying II

Control networks for engineering projects - methods used in determining Horizontal controls: Traversing, Triangulation, Trilateration, Intersection, Resection, Satellite Position Fixing. Vertical controls-Levelling Datum and principle of levelling, inverted staffs, trigonometric levelling methods,   Deformation monitoring, causes, types, and importance and analyses of deformation measurements  ; Underground surveys, transfer of controls underground -Weisbach triangle  method, Weiss quadrilateral method, gyro-theodeolite method, transfer of heights underground: Digital Terrain modeling- DTM generation, DTM representation as grids or TINS, DTM visualization,  DTM applications in highway design - software

GE 284 Hydrographic Surveying

Tides - tidal theory and observations; tide gauge analysis; shore line surveys; soundings; survey of tidal currents; stream measurements; hyperbolic position fixing systems; radio direction finders; dynamic positioning systems; sonar underwater sensors and shore topography; nautical charts; data processing and presentations; bathymetry.

GE 292 Survey Camp/Practical Task II

Road survey and preparation of engineering plans for road works; Preparation of Base Maps; Control surveys - Triangulation, trilateration and EDM traverses; design of terrestrial control network for photogrammetric mapping.

ENGL 264 LITERATURE IN ENGLISH II